# Analytics Dashboard¶

CodeGrade’s Analytics Dashboard is built to give you insight in both how students are doing on an assignment, as well as where an assignment can be improved to optimize the learning process. You can create selections of all the submissions for an assignment using filters. These selections are displayed in parallel in intuitive graphs. There are graphs for when and how many times students submitted their work, the distribution of grades, and, if the assignment has a rubric, statistics about the rubric’s categories.

## General statistics¶

The general statistics show statistics over all submissions and are not subject to the selected filters.

**Students**or**Groups**: the total number of students (or groups if this is a group assignment) that submitted their work.**Submissions**: the total amount of submissions for this assignment.**Average grade**: the average grade over the latest submissions of each student. The latest submission is used here because that is the grade that a student will get for this assignment.**Average submissions**: the average amount of submissions per student.

The information popovers list some other useful statistics about the grade:

**Mean**: the mean value of the sample.**Std. deviation**: the sample standard deviation from the mean.**Median**: the median value of the sample. This is the middle value in the sorted list of values.**Mode**: the mode of the sample. This is the most common value in the sample.

Note

Since these statistics do not necessarily follow the normal distribution it is not always the case that ~66% of students lie within 1 standard deviation from the mean.

## Filters¶

Filters can be used to select a subset of the available data. You can create multiple filters to select multiple datasets that will be visualized in parallel. Each dataset will have its own distinct color in the charts in the rest of the page. The default filter selects the latest submission of each student.

Note

It is possible to create overlapping datasets, e.g. two datasets that contain the same submission. This leads to a bias in your data, making it very difficult to take fair conclusions.

Note

When an assignment does not have many submissions to begin with, applying filters will decrease the size even further. Make sure that the amount of submissions per selection is sufficient to take any conclusion.

### Filter options¶

Each filter has a set of options that narrow the scope of its selection.

**Latest**: when checked, only the latest submission by each student is selected. Otherwise all submissions of each student are used.**Min. grade**: only select submissions with a grade equal to or greater than this number.**Max. grade**: only select submissions with a grade strictly less than this number.**Submitted after**: only select submissions from this date or after.**Submitted before**: only select submissions from strictly before this date.**Graders**: only select submissions assigned to one of the selected graders.

At the bottom of each filter there is a field showing the general statistics for the submissions selected by this filter.

### Creating new filters¶

There are multiple ways to create a new filter: click to add a new default filter, click to duplicate an existing filter, or click to split a filter.

### Splitting filters¶

You can split the set of submissions selected by a filter into several subsets. Click the button to start splitting a filter.

You are presented with a list of options how you want the set to be split up.
With the exception of the **Latest** option, the submissions are split into
several disjoint subsets.

**Latest**: creates two sets of submissions. One will only contain the latest submission by each student, while the other has all submissions per student, including their latest submission.**Grade**: creates two disjoint subsets. One will contain only those submissions with a grade strictly lower than the entered value. The other will contain the rest of the submissions.**Submitted on**: creates two disjoint subsets, one containing all submissions that were submitted before the given date, and the other everything that was submitted after this date.**Grader**: creates a new subset for each selected grader. The subset per grader will only contain submissions that are assigned to that grader.

Below the splitting options is a field with general statistics for each result that would be produced by these splits.

Multiple splits can be applied at the same time. The resulting amount of datasets will be the product of applying each separately.

Warning

Splitting on multiple criteria makes the number of resulting filters grow exponentially in the number of criteria, and making a proper analysis quickly becomes unwieldy.

**Sharing filters**

You can click and then to share your current set of filters with others.

Note

Without the permission “Can view analytics” the Analytics Dashboard cannot be displayed.

## Submission statistics¶

The submission statistics consist of two diagrams.

The first is a histogram that shows, per interval of time, when students have submitted their work. You can configure the range of dates that should be visualised, and select a proper bin size.

The second histogram gives insight in how many submissions students have made. The X-axis lists the amount of submimssions, and the Y-axis lists the number of students that fall into that category.

## Grade statistics¶

The grade statistics shows the distribution of grades. On the X-axis is the grade and on the Y-axis the number of students that achieved that grade.

## Rubric statistics¶

The rubric statistics contains several diagrams giving insight in how students scored on the rubric of this assignment:

**Mean (default)**shows the mean score that students achieved per rubric category. The error bars indicate the standard deviation from the mean.**Median**is the median score per rubric category. The median is obtained by taking the middle value in the sorted list of scores.**Mode**gives the mode per rubric category. The mode is obtained by taking the most common value amongst a sample.**RIT**is the correlation, commonly denoted**R**, between the**I**tem and the**T**otal score. More details.**RIR**is the correlation**R**between the**I**tem and the**R**educed score, where the rest score is the total score for the rubric minus the score for this category. More details.A

**Correlation**diagram per rubric category plots the achieved scores in the rubric category against the reduced score of the entire rubric. Each point in the graph represents a single student. More details.

### Reduced rubric score¶

The reduced rubric score of a rubric category is the total amount of points achieved for a rubric minus the amount of points achieved for the rubric category. For example, if a student achieved 10 points in a rubric, of which 2 in the first rubric category, then their reduced rubric score for the first rubric category is 8.

### The RIT & RIR values¶

The **RIT** and **RIR** values of a rubric category are the correlation
coefficients between the score achieved in one rubric category category versus
how well they did in the overall rubric. Their value is a number between -1 and
1 measuring how well the score in a rubric category predicts the score in the
overall rubric.

Positive values indicate that students who scored higher in a rubric category also scored higher in the entire rubric, while negative values indicate the reverse: students who scored higher in this rubric category scored lower on the overall rubric.

A negative value for a rubric category is an indication that something may be off with the category and that it may need to be revised. It is not necessarily the case, of course, so it is left to the discretion of the teacher to act upon this.

While the RIT and RIR values are very similar, there is a subtle difference in how they are calculated. The RIT value is calculated against the total score on the rubric, but since this total score also includes the score for the compared-to category the data is biased, because higher item scores automatically lead to higher total scores. The RIR value overcomes this by using the reduced rubric score instead of the total rubric score. Subtracting the total score from the item score first, and only then calculating the correlation between the two removes this bias. The RIR value is often a fairer representation of the quality of a rubric category.

### Correlation diagrams¶

The correlation diagram of a rubric category has the achieved score in the category on the X-axis versus the reduced rubric score on the Y-axis. Each point in the diagram represents a single student. These diagrams are useful to understand where the RIR values of the rubric categories came from.

A linear line is drawn through the diagram that best fits the data. This line reflects the RIR value: if the line is increasing the RIR value for this rubric category is positive, and if the line is decreasing the RIR value is negative.

## Relative statistics¶

Because it is common to compare datasets of different sizes, all graphs display their data as percentages of a total, rather than absolute numbers. This behavior can be toggled with the button at the top of each chart.

## Examples¶

Example: Splitting on grades¶

You want to find out if students with high grades submitted their work earlier to verify their work against the assignment’s AutoTest setup. Let’s say a high grade is a 7.5 or higher.

Starting from the default filter, you uncheck the **Latest** option because
you want the first submission of each student to be included.

Next, you click the button to split the filter, and you
enter 7.5 in the **Grade** field.

Finally, click the button to apply the split. You now have two datasets, one with all submissions with a grade less than 7.5, and another with all submissions with a grade greater than 7.5.

You can now navigate to the submission date graph to compare the two groups.

Example: Splitting on multiple criteria¶

You want to perform the same experiment as in the previous example, but now you want to compare those results between two teaching assistants, Alice and Bob.

Starting from the default filter, you click the button,
enter a 7.5 in the **Grade** field, and select both Alice and Bob in the
**Graders** field.

Clicking the button now results in 4 datasets:

One with grades below 7.5 and graded by Alice

One with grades above 7.5 and graded by Alice

One with grades below 7.5 and graded by Bob

One with grades above 7.5 and graded by Bob

Example: Comparing between graders¶

You want to see if there is a correlation between the amount of feedback given and the average grade between your teaching assistants.

You start with the default filter and click the button. In
the **Graders** field you select “All”. In the results below the split
options you can see the average grade and the average number of inline
feedback entries per TA.

You click the button to get more detailed information such as the grade distribution per teaching assistant.